White notes the Pawnees intent to protect timber resources after realizing their diminishment over time, especially as the horse was introduced into the culture.
Too often they are dismissed as merely environmental or biological failures--failures of skill, of luck, or of.
The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Ageand then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations. Genetic evidence suggests at least three waves of migrants arrived from Asia, with the first occurring at least 15 thousand years ago.
This theory, as posited by Immanuel Wallerstein, centered around the relationship between underdeveloped "peripheral" regions and capitalist "core" regions.
The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.
They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases;  see Archaeology of the Americas. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories.These complexities are interwoven with primary and secondary resources to describe the community-based, socialistic societal structures and how those structures responded to the increasing pressures of the market by the European and American whites played a large role on the paths to dependency of the three tribes. The third group that White focuses on are the Navajo the Dine that continue to inhabit some of their ancestral land on their current reservation in southern Utah, northern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico. These larger issues are the concern of this book. He presents a well-rounded hypothesis as he intricately weaves a subtle message of the community-based social structures of the three groups, the value they each placed upon generosity over individual gain, and the devastating effects of the market economy upon those structures. They sought assistance from the Americans and were removed to Indian Territory. Although he also cited alcohol as a major element of this decline, White asserted that the Euro-American market economy was the "critical" factor in understanding the "fate" of the Choctaws. Indians, like all peoples, live in a physical world which is not only natural but also historical--a creation of their ancestors and themselves. All sources are taken with a grain of salt. According to Wallerstein, as peripheral regions are drawn into the global market they become subject to an increasingly unequal and exploitative commercial exchange with core nations. Initially the Choctaws were interested in the market economy as a way to maintain power through the act of giving and receiving gifts with outsiders and reciprocity and redistribution of gifts among themselves. Evidence of pre-Clovis cultures have also been found in the Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon and butchered mastodon bones in a sinkhole near Tallahassee, Florida. Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as " Neolithic ," which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions. This ubiquity of the Indian as environmentalist unfortunately tends to reduce most research about Indian peoples and the land to briefs for and against the recent canonization of Indians into environmental sainthood.
Yet, it is still an outstanding work of Environmental History, with an exquisite combination of economic, political, social, and cultural factors all in relationship with their environment.
Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas.Yet, while the Choctaws successfully warded off the dangers to their subsistence system from a European market economy, they also became increasingly dependent on manufactured goods. Their lifestyle was one of subsistence, primarily fed through agriculture and secondarily fed through the communal hunting of white-tailed deer and foraging. Focusing on the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos, Richard White attempted to identify and isolate the various factors that contributed to the material decline of American Indian peoples. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia , a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Age , and then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B. Indians, like all peoples, live in a physical world which is not only natural but also historical--a creation of their ancestors and themselves. The Dine also valued the act of generosity as it brought honor to the individual and clan.